Thermal waters of the Trans-Carpathian Trough

The first information about the geothermal conditions of the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine was published in the work of geophysicists G.Gandyuk and O.Potushansky in 1956.

In 1957, A. Babinets in the work “Geothermal features of the regions of the Ukrainian SSR” gives an overall assessment of the prospects for the use of thermal waters, paying particular attention to Transcarpathia. A. Lyalko from the Institute of Geology of The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine estimates hot water reserves using electrical modeling in the late 1960s.

The first well for thermal waters was drilled within the Vishkiv ore field during 1961-1962. Temperature measurements in wells of different purposes were performed in the course of their exploration to depths of 2000m.

The Transcarpathian Geological Exploration Expedition drilled 29 wells in thermal waters from a depth of 800 to 1500 m. Only three from the 29 wells were waterless. Exploitation of the Berehovo field has been going on since 1973. Subsequently, reserves were identified in three fields (Nizhny Solotvinsk, Velyatinsk, and Kosinski). In all cases, the water is used for healing.

The Transcarpathian Neogene trough is characterized by high thermal field gradient. Within its limits, the levels of heat fluxes vary from 61.4 mW / m2 to 111-112 mW / m2.

The considerable strain of the deflection thermal field is associated with the high tectonic mobility of the area. The deep thermal processes associated with the differentiation and redistribution of magma proceeded very intensively here. At the same time, the differentiation of the deep heat flux takes place within the Miocene deflection cover.

The isothermal surface + 50 ° C within the Mukachevo basin lies at a depth of 444 m to 600-800 m and 700-900 m. Within the Vishkiv ore field (Solotvino depression), this depth is 700-800 m, and in the Tereblya district it increases to 1400 m.

The geothermal gradients for the Neogene sediment deflections in general are twice their value for the geological formations of the Carpathians. At the boundary of the bend and folding of the Carpathians in the zone of the Transcarpathian deep fault, the gradient along the well “3-Svalyava” is 3.4 ° C / 100m.

Geologically, the deposits of the thermal waters of Transcarpathia belong to fractured veins and partly to reservoir-fractured ones.

In Transcarpathia, the most common waters of the two subgroups are:

– brackish – from 5 to 10 g / dm3;

– very salty – from 10 to 25 g / dm3.

In chemical composition, thermal waters are sodium chloride; in some cases there is a high content of hydrocarbons.

The total thermal energy potential of thermal waters of Transcarpathia is: 1.0 * 106 Gcal / year.

At present, the use of thermal waters of the region is very limited. Only the Berehiv and Kosin fields (Berehiv district) and Velyatinsk (Khust district) are in operation (see pictures below).

In doing so, only a small portion of the estimated inventory is selected. Water is used for healing.

All types of thermal waters of the region are therapeutic and they can be the basis for the development of the resort and tourist business in the lowland part of the region.

Thermal pool at ZHAIVORONOK (Skylark) Hotel, Berehove, Zakarpatska region.
“Tourinform Zakarpattya”,
Thermal pool at KOSYNA, Zakarpatska region.
TCH, Ukrainian news

Igor Melnyk
Geoinform – State Information Geological Fund of Ukraine


Zharnikova, R., Estimation of the resources of thermal waters of the Transcarpathian region; geological report, Beregovo, State Enterprise “Zakhiukrgeologiya”, 2007, 66p.

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