Groundwater temperature monitoring of two open loop systems
Zagreb is the capital of Croatia, and by far the largest urban agglomeration in the country (≈800 000 inhabitants). The city area can be divided into alluvial plain of the Sava River (ZG-AL, blue polygon in figure 1) and Podsljeme urbanized zone (ZG-PUZ) at the foothills of Medvednica Mt.
The aquifer system (ZG-AL) comprises two Quaternary aquifers. Hydrogeologically, the Quaternary deposits are divided into three basic units: An overburden of clay and silt; a shallow Holocene aquifer of medium-grained gravel mixed with sands; and deeper aquifers from the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, with frequent lateral and vertical alterations of gravel, sand and clay. The thickness of the unsaturated zone of the Zagreb aquifer system is 2-8 m going from SE to NW, predominantly gravels and sands, with sporadic clays.
Zagreb, as other larger urban areas, has significant heating and cooling loads, and it is known that many investors and developers opt for the installation of different types of heat pumps, instead of gas fired heating and typical air-source heat pump cooling systems. Unfortunately, the number of installed heat pump systems is unknown. There is no solution in sight for chronical lack of data, since the regulations on construction are becoming more lenient, rather than stricter.
Previous studies focused on the possibilities for closed loop heat pump utilization. The scope of MUSE is now to investigate do the open loop systems cause thermal pollution in the Zagreb aquifer, which is also used for water supply and, if they do, to what magnitude. Therefore, two test sites were chosen: One is a residential building, while the other is an IKEA store and accompanying facilities. We are considering a smaller and a larger system to test if there are there differences in their impact. Due to the large extent and thickness of the aquifer, our hypothesis is that we will not observe significant temperature deviations. However, that remains open.
We installed HOBO WATER LEVEL data loggers at both sites – at one piezometer in the smaller system (figure 2) and at one production and reinjection well in the larger system. The results of the field measurements will be presented in the next round of blogs about the MUSE pilot areas.
For more information, please contact:
Staša Borović, email@example.com
Older MUSE posts:
- Pilot area activities – #11 Groundwater monitoring in Bratislava, Slovakia
- Pilot area activities – #10 Hydrogeological characterisation of abandoned mine workings for low-enthalpy geothermal in Glasgow, Scotland
- Pilot area activities – #9 Geological and Hydrogeological surveys in Cardiff, UK
- Pilot area activities – #8 Hydrogeological and geothermal surveys in Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Pilot area activities – #7 New construction of a shallow geothermal installation in Prague, Czech Republic
- Pilot area activities – #6 Groundwater monitoring in Girona, Catalonia, Spain
- Pilot area activities – #5 Geothermal data analysis in Aarhus, Denmark
- Pilot area activities – #4 Geothermal data collection in Cork City, Ireland
- Pilot area activities – #3 Groundwater monitoring in Zaragoza, Spain
- Pilot area activities – #2 Geological and geophysical surveys in Linköping, Sweden
- Pilot area activities – #1 Groundwater monitoring in Vienna, Austria
- Geophysical survey in Anderlecht
- MUSE team meeting in Cardiff, UK
- Knowledge Exchange Workshop of MUSE and HotLime projects held in Zagreb
- MUSE leaflet available now
- The MUSE team met in Essen, Germany